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Light Straw-Clay (LSC): A Natural and Earthen Building Material


At the heart of green building lies an age-old material that's making a remarkable comeback: Light Straw-Clay (LSC). With its roots tracing back to ancient times, this material offers a delightful blend of tradition and modernity, and it's easy to see why it's become a beloved choice in eco homes.


In essence, LSC predominantly consists of two primary ingredients: straw and clay. When combined in a 10:2 ratio—ten parts straw to two parts clay slip—this mixture harnesses the insulating properties of straw and the binding power of clay. The result? A durable and efficient building material that's both eco-friendly and cost-effective.


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How Light Straw-Clay is Made


Light Straw Clay, or LSC, is a versatile natural building material celebrated for its adaptability. While it may not be the first choice for passive house construction or rammed earth structures, it finds its niche in other eco-conscious alternatives.


Here are the basic steps for making LSC (Light Straw-Clay):


  1. Gather Materials: Collect straw, clay soil, and water. The straw should be chopped or shredded into short pieces for easier mixing.

  2. Prepare Clay Slip: Mix the clay soil with water to create a clay slip. This slip will serve as the binder for the straw.

  3. Mix Straw and Clay: Combine the chopped straw and the clay slip in a large container or mixing area. Thoroughly mix them until the straw is evenly coated with the clay. Ensure that the mixture has a workable consistency, where the straw is well-distributed and coated with the clay, but it's not too wet or too dry.

LSC’s unique qualities make it a valuable resource for those seeking alternatives to traditional building methods in the world of green construction.


Understanding Light Straw-Clay Construction


Light Straw-Clay construction integrates traditional and modern building techniques, making it a viable option for those seeking eco-friendly building solutions. The images below offer a detailed illustration of a cross-sectional view of a wall constructed using Light Straw-Clay (LSC) materials and techniques.




Here's a breakdown of each component:


1. Top Plate: The horizontal structural member located at the top of wall sections, providing support for roof or floor joists.


2. Plywood Gussets: These are triangular or polygonal plates made from plywood used to connect and reinforce the joints of the wall's structural elements, typically in truss constructions.


3. Larsen Truss: Named after its ingenious creator, John Larsen, this specialized truss design allows for a thick layer of insulation while minimizing thermal bridging (heat transfer) through the structural members.


4. 1" Stabilizing Bar: Providing additional structural support, this modest yet essential bar provides extra structural stability to the wall system, preventing deformation or buckling.


5. Earthen Base Plaster: This natural plaster layer is made primarily from earth or clay, often mixed with straw and water. It provides a protective and aesthetic coating over the straw-clay fill.


6. Exterior Lime Plaster: This is an outer layer of plaster formulated with lime. Lime plaster provides a breathable, durable, and weather-resistant finish, ideal for protecting the straw-clay interior.


7. Light-Straw Clay: This primary insulation and infill material combines straw with a clay slip. The mixture is packed into the wall cavity, providing insulation and structural support once dry.


8. Decay Resistant Sill Plate: Anchoring the structure, the bottom horizontal member rests on the foundation, providing a sturdy base for the vertical studs. Being decay-resistant means it's treated or made of material that withstands rot and insects.


The careful combination of these chosen parts creates a wall system that not only supports sustainability and energy efficiency but also shows how traditional methods can blend with modern ideas.


Benefits of LSC


If you're curious about why LSC is becoming the darling of sustainable architecture, let's break down its advantages:


Environmental Benefits

  • Sustainable and Renewable: At its core, LSC champions sustainable living. Made from straw and clay, both renewable resources, it encapsulates the vision of eco homes for a greener tomorrow.


  • Carbon Sequestration: Here's a fun fact—straw, a primary component of LSC, naturally captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. LSC sequesters 60x the carbon it requires to grow, giving it the lowest carbon footprint of any insulation. This means that buildings made from LSC actively help reduce the carbon footprint, making it a standout in the world of natural building.


Construction Benefits

  • Ease of Application: Ever heard of the saying, "as easy as pie"? That's how many builders describe working with LSC. If you're familiar with conventional stick-frame house construction, you'll find using LSC straightforward. As a non-load-bearing material, LSC is primarily used in a frame-and-fill method, often combined with Larsen trusses or split stud framing to ensure a strong thermal envelope. In this method, you create a sturdy structure using regular framing, which is commonly used in conventional homes. LSC then comes into play as the infill material, snuggly filling the frame to provide excellent insulation


  • Durability: LSC isn't just about being eco-friendly; it's built to last. With the right care, LSC constructions can stand tall for years, epitomizing the essence of durability in rammed-earth and passive house communities.


  • Low-Tech and Accessible: LSC construction is a low-tech system, making it accessible to many individuals. While it might be slightly more labor-intensive than conventional construction methods, its application promotes inclusivity and a quieter work environment.


Photo Credits: The Last Straw


Health and Comfort Benefits

  • Non-Toxic and Hypoallergenic: Imagine living in a home that prioritizes your health. LSC is non-toxic and has hypoallergenic properties, ensuring a safer and healthier living environment.


  • Optimal Insulation Properties and Climate Control: Have you ever dreamt of a home that's cozy in winters and cool in summers? LSC's insulative qualities, combined with its thermal mass, make this dream a reality. It offers an R-value of 1.2-1.6 per inch. To achieve an R21 wall, which is the standard for temperate to mixed climates, one should construct a 12-inch thick wall.


Comparison to Other Building Materials


Navigating the world of building materials can be like a maze. Each turn offers something new, promising the best in terms of cost, durability, and sustainability. But how does Light Straw-Clay (LSC) compare to these conventional choices? Let's take a peek:


Cost: At first glance, some might think that going the green building route might be more expensive. But here's the surprise: LSC, as a natural building material, often proves to be a cost-effective alternative. The materials, primarily straw and clay, are abundantly available and are typically more affordable than many mainstream materials. Plus, if you're into DIY, LSC could offer additional savings in labor costs.


Longevity: Durability might be the last thing on your mind when you think of straw and clay. But together, they create a symphony of strength. When done right, LSC constructions can rival the longevity of many conventional buildings. With the passive house movement emphasizing long-lasting structures, LSC certainly earns its badge of durability.


Environmental Impact: While many conventional materials leave a significant carbon footprint, LSC stands apart with its minimal environmental impact. The straw in LSC captures carbon, making it a champion for eco homes aiming to reduce their carbon footprint. Moreover, the sustainable nature of its primary ingredients ensures we aren't depleting precious resources.


Photo Credits: The Last Straw


Challenges and Considerations


When it comes to Light Straw-Clay (LSC) as a building material, there's much to love. But like any choice, it's not without its potential downsides. Let's dive into what you should keep in mind:


  • Moisture Sensitivity: LSC doesn't play well with excessive moisture. It's essential to protect LSC structures from prolonged exposure to water, which can weaken the material over time. Proper site selection, roof overhangs, and moisture barriers can shield LSC from excessive moisture.

  • Maintenance: While LSC is durable, it does require some maintenance. Regular inspections and timely repairs can keep your LSC structure in top shape.

  • Building Code Approval: As of 2018, LSC was incorporated into the International Residential Code (IRC). This means builders can employ this natural building method while still adhering to the code, potentially increasing property value. When in doubt, seek advice from professionals experienced in LSC construction. They can help navigate local building codes and provide valuable insights.


FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)


  • What is the best type of straw for LSC?

The best straw for Light Straw-Clay (LSC) is typically wheat straw or barley straw. These types of straws are sturdy and readily available. It's important to ensure that the straw is clean, free from mold, and chopped into manageable lengths for mixing with the clay.


  • How much straw is needed for an average size house?

The amount of straw you'll need depends on the size of your house and the thickness of the LSC walls. As a rough estimate, you might require around 1 to 1.5 tons of straw for every 1,000 square feet of wall area. Keep in mind that this can vary based on your specific design and preferences.


  • How much straw is needed for an average size house?

Estimating the amount of straw required for an average-sized house in Light Straw-Clay (LSC) construction involves some calculations. According to experts like Robert Laporte and Paula Baker-Laporte, a rule of thumb is to use approximately seven pounds of barley straw for every cubic foot of wall area. For instance, if you're building a 1,500-square-foot residence and you're using this method, you might need about 7,500 pounds of straw. It's important to note that the amount of straw needed can vary based on the desired wall density and thickness. Additionally, a light-straw mixture should contain a minimum of 65% and a maximum of 85% straw by volume of bale-compacted straw to clay soil. These guidelines help ensure the LSC walls' structural integrity and insulation properties while using an appropriate amount of straw.


  • How much clay will I need?

The amount of clay needed also varies based on factors like wall thickness and design. On average, you may require about 10-15% clay by volume compared to the straw. It's crucial to ensure the clay is well-mixed with the straw to achieve the desired consistency for LSC.



  • How do I know if my site has good clay?

Testing the clay content of your site is essential. You can do a simple "jar test" by collecting soil samples from your site, mixing them with water in a jar, and allowing them to settle. The clay particles will settle at the bottom, helping you gauge the clay content. Ideally, you'll want clay with good binding properties and minimal silt and sand.


The Future of Light Straw Clay (LSC)


Looking ahead, innovations in the world of Light Straw Clay (LSC) are paving the way for even more versatile and efficient construction methods. One such advancement comes from companies like StraBloc, which have introduced LSC bricks designed to minimize thermal bridging. These specially crafted blocks or panels offer an exciting solution to address one of LSC's historical challenges – its relatively slow drying and curing process.


Traditionally, LSC needs time to dry and set. In fact, it usually requires about 1 inch of material to dry and cure over the course of a week. This characteristic has sometimes posed a constraint for projects on tight schedules or in regions with frequent rain or high humidity.


However, innovative products like StraBloc's LSC bricks aim to change the game. By reducing thermal bridging and enhancing the material's drying capabilities, these developments promise to make LSC construction more adaptable and time-efficient.


It's worth noting that LSC has typically been more suitable for dry climates, where the drying process is less hindered. With advancements like these, LSC's applicability could extend to a broader range of regions and climates, offering sustainable building solutions for a greener and more resilient future.





Building Tomorrow's Sustainable World with Light Straw-Clay (LSC)


Light Straw-Clay's (LSC) unique blend of natural building techniques and eco-friendly attributes paints a vivid picture of what our construction landscape could look like in the years to come. As more people seek sustainable alternatives for construction, LSC shines with its blend of natural building methods and sustainable architecture principles. Think of it as the harmonious middle-ground between the age-old rammed earth techniques and the modern passive house standards. Its durability, paired with its eco-friendly credentials, has made LSC a sought-after choice for those venturing into the world of sustainable living.


If you're intrigued by the possibilities of Light Straw-Clay and eager to witness its real-life applications, we invite you to follow and explore Build In A Box on Instagram, where you can see firsthand how this remarkable material is transforming the way it is built. For daily inspiration on sustainable living and natural building, stay connected with us on Pinterest and Instagram.


Together, we can build a brighter and greener tomorrow.

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 CHRISTINA

I love all things natural. I love building places we can call home and in turn be our most authentic selves. 
 

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